\begin{tikzpicture}
\tkzDefPoint(-1,0){p}
\tkzDefPoint(1,0){q}
\fill[color=blue!20](0,0) circle (1cm);
\fill[color=white](.5,0) ellipse (.5cm and .1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](q) arc(360:180:.5cm and .1cm) node[below]{$$c$$};
\draw (.5,0) ellipse(.5cm and .1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](q) arc(0:180:1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](p) arc(180:360:1cm);
\tkzDrawPoints(p,q)
\draw (90:1.3) node{$$a_2$$};
\draw (270:1.3) node{$$a_2$$};
\begin{scope}[xshift=3cm]
\tkzDefPoint(-1,0){p}
\tkzDefPoint(1,0){q}
\fill[color=blue!20](0,0) circle (1cm);
\fill[color=white](-.5,0) ellipse (.5cm and .1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](p) arc(180:360:.5cm and .1cm) node[below]{$$c$$};
\draw (-.5,0) ellipse(.5cm and .1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](q) arc(0:180:1cm);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](p) arc(180:360:1cm);
\tkzDrawPoints(p,q)
\draw (90:1.3) node{$$a_1$$};
\draw (270:1.3) node{$$a_1$$};
\end{scope}
\draw (1.5,-1.6) node{(a)};
\begin{scope}[yshift=-3.4cm]
\tkzDefPoint(1,1){a}
\tkzDefPoint(0,0){o}
\tkzDefPoint(1,-1){b}
\tkzDefPoint(1.4,1){a*}
\tkzDefPoint(1.4,-1){b*}
\tkzDefPoint(2.4,0){o*}
\fill[color=blue!20] (a) to (o) to (b) to [bend left=20] (a);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (a)--node[left]{$$a_2$$} (o);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (o)--node[left]{$$a_2$$} (b);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (b) to [bend left=20] (a);
\draw (.6,0) node{$$c$$};
\fill[color=blue!20] (a*) to (o*) to (b*) to [bend right=20] (a*);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (o*)--node[right]{$$a_1$$} (a*);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (b*)--node[right]{$$a_1$$} (o*);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth] (b*) to [bend right=20] (a*);
\draw (1.8,-.1) node{$$c$$};
\tkzDrawPoints(a,o,b,a*,b*,o*)
\draw (1.2,-1.6) node{(b)};
\end{scope}
\begin{scope}[xshift=6cm,yshift=-2.3cm]
\fill[color=blue!20](0,0) rectangle (2,2);
\draw (0,0) rectangle (2,2);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](0,0)--node[below]{$$a_1$$} (2,0);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](2,2)--node[above]{$$a_2$$} (0,2);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](0,2)--node[left]{$$a_2$$} (0,0);
\draw[arrowMe=stealth](2,0)--node[right]{$$a_1$$} (2,2);
\draw[dashed,arrowMe=stealth](0,0)--node[below]{$$c$$}(2,2);
\draw (1,-.7) node{(c)};
\end{scope}
\end{tikzpicture}